From Soiled Moth, 3 Months ago, written in Plain Text.
  1. Apa style for websites with no date
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  79. In-Text Citations and Reference List Entries Finally, if you paraphrase or quote specific, retrievable information from social media, provide an in-text citation with the author and date and a reference list entry with the author, date, title, and source URL. Journal Title, X, xxx—xxx. The reference list entry for an e-book includes the author, date, title, and source or.
  81. The style guide of The American Psychological Association, or APA, is used in academic and professional writing across several disciplines including the social sciences, business and nursing. If you are citing an article on the website, use the title of the article.
  83. APA: Website - No one else has a plaster cast.
  85. Dear Style Expert, I found a very useful website and cited a lot of information from it in my paper. But how do I write an in-text citation for content I found on a website? Do I just put the URL in the sentence where I cite the information? Thanks, Wallace Dear Wallace, This is a tricky question, but we can help! The short answer is that in most cases no, you do not put the URL in the text of the paper. In fact, the only time you would put a URL in the text would be to simply. Luckily, writing the in-text citation for a website or webpage is easy: Simply include the author and year of publication. The URL goes in the corresponding reference list entry and yes, you can. Website Example In-text citation: The American Nurses Association 2006 issued a position statement insisting that pharmaceutical companies immediately cease using thimerosal as a vaccine preservative. Reference list: American Nurses Association. Retrieved from Note that the title of the website or webpage should be italicized in the reference list if the work on the page stands alone but not italicized if it is part of a greater whole if this is ambiguous on the source, just choose what you think makes the most sense for the situation. In deciding how to categorize material on a website for a reference, it may be helpful to consider whether what is on the website is similar to an —for example, this reference is a position statement, which is similar to a press release, white paper, or report; hence the italic title. To clarify the document type, you can also specify the format in brackets after the title. Determining Website Authors It can be confusing to determine who the author of a website or webpage is. For example, the author of the position statement cited above is the American Nurses Association. If the website or webpage truly does not have an author, substitute the title of the page for the author in the in-text citation and reference list entry see this post on for examples of how to do this. Determining Website Dates A second source of confusion is that many websites or webpages do not include publication dates. If no date of publication is provided, use the letters n. The should not be used as the publication date for particular content on that site. If multiple dates are provided, use the most recent date on which the content was changed. For example, if the site says the content was first published in 2010 and last updated on August 6, 2016, then use the date 2016 in the in-text citation and reference list. However, if the site says it was first published in 2010 and last reviewed in July 2016, then use the date 2010 because a review does not imply that any information was changed. Multiple Website Citations If you use information from multiple pages on a website, create a separate reference list entry for each page, with in-text citations that correspond to the appropriate reference list entry. It is common for writers to have multiple entries with the , so to differentiate these entries, use a letter after the year e. Put references with no date before references with dates, and put in-press references last. Multiple reference list entries: American Nurses Association. Retrieved from American Nurses Association. Retrieved from American Nurses Association. Retrieved from American Nurses Association. Academic progression to meet the needs of the registered nurse, the health care consumer, and the U. Retrieved from In text, you can cite these references separately as usual e. Simply state the author once and then provide the years of the applicable references in chronological order, separated by commas. Combined in-text citations: American Nurses Association n. Leave a comment below. And there are no limits on the age of sources. Rather, APA recommends that sources be reliable, primary accounts that represent the most up-to-date information wherever possible. Reliable Sources A reliable source is one you can trust. Two indicators of reliability are the expertise of the author and the vetting standards of the place of publication. For example, an article written by a researcher and published in a peer-reviewed journal is likely to contain reliable information and thus would make a good source. On the other hand, a random website written by an unknown person, for example, is less likely to be reliable, and thus we would not recommend you cite this source unless you have a good reason e. However, the mere fact that information is published online is not reason to dismiss it as unreliable. Many scientific, medical, and governmental organizations—such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC , National Institutes of Health, U. Census Bureau, and even the APA—publish reliable information on their websites and social media sites. Scientists and research organizations might publish blogs or that are worth citing. Evaluate each source on its own merits for reliability when determining whether to cite it in a paper. Primary Sources A primary source presents information gathered firsthand, such as the results of an experiment or data from a survey. Secondary sources present information secondhand—an example would be a textbook summary of a topic or a article. APA recommends citing primary sources whenever possible, because this allows you to verify the accuracy and completeness of the information yourself rather than rely on someone else to do this for you. Secondary sources can be reliable, but it is a best practice of scholarly writing to investigate for yourself if you can. See and for more information on primary and secondary sources. Up-to-Date Sources APA recommends that you use the most up-to-date research you can find on your topic. However, the meaning of up-to-date will vary depending on the field. Some fields develop faster than others, and even within a field, some information will remain relevant for a long time, whereas other information will become outdated. For example, foundational works may be quite old but still worth citing when you are establishing the context for your own work. There is no year-related cutoff where sources must be published within the past x number of years to be used in a paper. Each source must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine whether the information in it is timely and relevant. If you have further questions about choosing sources for an APA Style paper, leave a comment below. This post is about how to talk about the hashtags themselves. The hashtag as an organizational tool , but that's where I, and many others, first saw it used that way. And, as Chris Messina, who introduced the idea to Twitter, has said, Indeed, the hashtag is a common sight on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Vine, Google+, Flickr, Tumblr, Pinterest, Kickstarter, and other platforms. And its ubiquity makes the hashtag an incredibly useful search tool. And just as with other aspects of your methodology, you can simply. If the reasoning behind the wording of the hashtag is not obvious, you might want to elaborate. In this example, you might want or need to explain the origin of the terms Umbrella Revolution and the Occupy movement, which led to the UmbrellaRevolution and OccupyHK hashtags. Of course, in your paper you might also refer to individual tweets, Facebook posts, pictures, or other online items that include hashtags. For instance, you might want to quote the most popular Tweet that used the hashtag or just show some representative cases. Q: Do I have to cite the computer software I mention in my paper? Examples are Microsoft Word, Java, and Adobe Photoshop. Even less ubiquitous software, like SPSS or SAS, does not need to be referenced. In your text, if you mention a program, do include the version number of the software. For example, let's say you used an open source software package to display items to the participants in your study. You should cite it. The reference format follows our usual --- format. In all other cases, create a reference as you would for unauthored works. This helps the reader immensely. Example References Esolang, A. A: No: not in the text and not in the reference. Q: Is the name of the program capitalized? A: Yes, the name of the software is a proper noun and , both in the text and in the reference list. Q: What about programming languages? But, feel free to discuss them in the text of your paper, if relevant. Q: What about mobile apps? A: Yes, you can cite those, too. If you need to cite an app, has everything you need to know. Q: What about video games? A: Yes, video games are software. Follow the templates above for the reference and in-text citation. Q: What if I used an online application to have my participants complete a survey? A: Like Survey Monkey? If you mention the use of a site, simply provide the URL in your text e. See for more details about citing websites. Q: What if I wrote the software myself? A: If the reader can retrieve it, you can include a reference, following the template above. You might also find these post about and helpful. I've tried to cover everything, but please let me know what I missed. I look forward to questions and comments! What do I mean? We are sometimes asked how to cite multiple from the same website. But, if you quote or paraphrase information from individual pages on a website, create a unique reference for each one. This allows your reader to find your exact source. This may mean your reference list contains a number of references with similar, but distinct, URLs. In the process, you might quote or paraphrase from a number of pages on the APA website, and your reference list would include a unique reference for each. Exercise and Sport Psychology. In-Text Citations When you quote directly from a web page, be sure to , in lieu of a page number, with the in-text citation. You may also include a paragraph number when paraphrasing. This will help readers locate the part of the page you are relying on. We just want it to go back where it came from. So the next time you ask your dog to fetch sources for your research paper, make sure he tells you what they are, where he got them, who created them, and when they were created. To point the reader of a paper to a specific spot in an audiovisual source—such as when you cite a direct quotation—include a timestamp in the APA Style in-text citation, just as you would include a page number under analogous circumstances for a print source like a book or journal article. This post will show you how. Use a Timestamp to Cite a Direct Quotation To cite a direct quotation from an audiovisual source, include a timestamp in the in-text citation alongside the author and date indicating the point at which the quotation begins. Here are two examples from a about cognitive behavioral therapy that features interviews with both practitioners and clients. The treatments of cognitive behavioral therapy may seem extreme to a person who does not experience the difficulties associated with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder. No one else has a plaster cast. The timestamp reflects the format shown on the source—here, the video is counted in minutes and seconds. To cite a quotation appearing before the 1-minute mark, or from a video less than 1 minute long, include a zero in the minutes column e. This example also demonstrates how to incorporate details into the narrative to provide context. Neither of the individuals quoted above are the author of the video which for retrieval in the reference is the name of the user who posted the video to YouTube, OCD-UK. Reference list entry: OCD-UK. Here is an example from a video interview with Aaron Beck, a pioneer of cognitive behavioral therapy. Beck has stated that the future of cognitive behavioral therapy should be founded in evidence-based treatment Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 2012, 1:30:40. He hypothesized that scientists may even be able to learn which therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy, or even gene therapy or psychogenomics will be most effective for a given individual, allowing therapists to personalize treatment for best results. Reference list entry: Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy. To refer to a range of time in an audiovisual source, use an between the two timestamps, just as you would use an en dash in a page range. Present both timestamps in full, just as you would present two page numbers in a range in full e. Here is an example: Beck provided several examples of how evidence-based treatments should form the foundation of cognitive behavioral therapy Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 2012, 1:30:40—1:33:35. Conclusion We hope this post has helped you understand how to use timestamps when citing audiovisual materials in an APA Style paper. You may also be interested in our posts on citing s, videos from the , , and. How do I include them in my reference list? My question for you is, Who is your intended audience? If this paper is for class only, then. Thank you for your question, and good luck with your paper! Do I need to cite this source in my reference list? A: No, but thanks for stopping by! Describe it in the Method section of your paper and acknowledge the tools that you used e. Although you may not be writing a meta-analysis article for publication, this is a good model of how to describe a search in your paper. McGinn, 2013, Psychological Bulletin. Copyright 2013 by the American Psychological Association. We'll look at each of these along with examples. General Mentions With a URL If you discuss any website or page in general in a paper including but not limited to social media , it is sufficient to give the URL in the text the first time it is mentioned. No reference list entry is needed. Personal Communications If you or specific information from social media but your readership will be unable to access the content e. A personal communication citation should be used because there is no direct, reliable path for all readers to retrieve the source. Here is an example: K. Ingraham personal communication, October 5, 2013 stated that she found her career as an educational psychologist intellectually stimulating as well as emotionally fulfilling. In-Text Citations and Reference List Entries Finally, if you paraphrase or quote specific, retrievable information from social media, provide an in-text citation with the author and date and a reference list entry with the author, date, title, and source URL. The guidelines below explain how to format each of these elements for any social media citation, and examples follow. This allows the reference to be associated with and alphabetized alongside any other works by that author. On Facebook and Google+, when the author is an individual, spell out his or her given name in square brackets. Credit additional individuals in the narrative if necessary. Ignore nonletter characters such as the at sign and pound sign when alphabetizing. Do not provide a retrieval date if the post has a specific date associated with it already e. Example Citations Tweet, Individual Author Gates, B. Polio is 99% eradicated. Facebook Status Update, Individual Author Gaiman, N. Please celebrate Leap Year Day in the traditional manner by taking a writer out for dinner. Facebook Status Update, Group Author APA Style. How do you spell success in APA Style? Google+ Post Cornell University. Having a cup of coffee before closing your eyes is the most effective way to combat daytime drowsiness, according to research. Sounds counterintuitive, but it takes 20 minutes for the caffeine to get into your bloodstream. Social Media Video American Psychological Association. Social Media Photo or Graphic, With Caption National Geographic. A supertelephoto lens allowed Colleen Pinski to capture this image of an annual solar eclipse. Social Media Photo Album Red Bull Stratos. For More For more information on all kinds of electronic references, see the available in and formats , as well as the. To cite social media items not covered here, follow the format that is most similar, and also see our post on. Thank you to all our readers who helped us develop these formats. Your feedback is always appreciated.
  86. Source Variations As shown in the Position D column of the table, the source part of a reference list entry can vary as well. This post is about how to ring about the hashtags themselves. Properly citing and referencing works in APA style assures continuity; grants credibility to the author, and helps prevent incidence of plagiarism. Count the paragraphs to figure out which paragraph you are citing. Topeka, KA: Prairie Publishers. In deciding how to categorize material on a note for a reference, it may be helpful to consider whether what is on the website is similar to an —for example, this reference is a position statement, which is similar to a press release, white paper, or report; hence the italic title. We hope this guide to north pieces will help you as you create your APA Style references.